Intervene Early To Prevent Smoking

Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of premature, preventable death in the United States. Each year smoking causes an average of 438,000 deaths from cancer, heart disease, stroke, and lung disease, according to the National Cancer Institute.

For years the conventional wisdom in smoking research was that smokers don’t show signs of daily cigarette addiction until adulthood. But at the School of Nursing, Professor Carla Storr, ScD, RN, is shedding light on the fact that nicotine addiction can start well before smokers are old enough to legally buy cigarettes.

Intervene Early To Prevent Smoking.


Psychology of Children with Alcoholic Fathers

Psychopathology of Children with Alcohol Dependent Fathers.

SUMMARY; Objective: In this study, we aimed to research cognitive, behavioural and psychopathological differences between children of fathers with alcohol dependency (ACOA’s) and children of fathers without alcohol dependency (non-ACOA’s).

Note: Cross posted from Recovery Is


Little Eyes, Little Ears

Angry boy with his hands over his ears Little eyes, little ears; how violence against a mother shapes children as they grow

Children are changed by growing up with violence and abuse at home

Bad sights, sounds and experiences take many forms. A hit or slap is obvious to see. Abusive words and interactions cause invisible bruises.

Change can be sudden or change can be gradual

Violence at home can take the form of one or more traumatic incidents triggering sudden change. Or changes can occur slowly in reaction to the daily dynamics of abusive relationships, shaping a child incrementally as he or she grows.

Change can be visible or change can be inside

Some changes show in a child’s behaviour, such as crying, aggression, or disrespect to women. Violence in the home also changes how children think and feel – about themselves, their families and life in general.

Children are not passive witnesses to noise, tension and violence at home

Little eyes and little ears don’t miss much, soaking in sights and sounds. Child "witnesses" of violence and abuse are overwhelmed by intense feelings and concentrate hard on their own thoughts. They may feel confused and scared and blame themselves.

As they watch or listen, they guess what caused the "fight," imagine what might happen next, and anticipate potential consequences.

Change can be bad and change can be good

By understanding a child’s view, we can nurture positive changes: correct distorted ideas, encourage helpful coping, build good interpersonal skills, and foster management of intense emotions. And we can support mothers as they help their children heal and thrive.

A child who lives with violence is

forever changed, but not forever

"damaged." There’s a lot we can

do to make tomorrow better.

This resource draws together, in one place, information from the best and latest research for professionals and volunteers who help women and children.

Topics addressed include what children might feel, think and do during violent incidents against their mothers, roles they might adopt before, during or after incidents, strategies of coping and survival, and how violence may be experienced by children of different ages, from infancy to adolescence.

The purpose is to examine how violence against a mother can shape a child. By learning how each child as an individual was shaped by experiences in his or her home – and considering important contextual features of family life – we can devise ways to help.

  • ‘little eyes , little ears’ how violence against a mother shapes children as they grow, by Alison Cunningham & Linda Baker the © 2007 Centre for Children and Families in the Justice System. Available at web site:
The Right Touch: A Read-Aloud Story to Help Prevent Child Sexual Abuse (Jody Bergsma Collection) by Sandy Kleven

Alcohol & Addiction News

7 Ways to Give An Apology & 4 Ways to Accept One

  • Apologizing is hard, but so is accepting an apology gracefully.

Substance Abuse, Schizophrenia And Risk Of Violence

  • A new study demonstrates that there is an association between schizophrenia and violence, but shows that this association is greatly increased by drug and alcohol abuse. Importantly, the study also finds that the risk of violence from patients with psychoses who also have substance use disorder is no greater than those who have a substance use disorder but who do not have a psychotic illness.

Russia’s president calls time on vodka "disaster"

  • Russian President Dmitry Medvedev on Wednesday called time on the country’s vodka tipplers, saying alcoholism had become a "national disaster." Medvedev said measures aimed at reducing binge drinking had not reduced alcoholism in Russia, where downing vast amounts of vodka at one sitting is an integral part of national culture.

Charity warns over child drinkers

  • Fewer children are drinking but those who do are downing more than every before, the charity Alcohol Concern warns.

1m Scots drinking at danger levels More than a million Scots are…

  • More than a million Scots are drinking alcohol at hazardous or harmful levels, a report has revealed.

Help an Alcoholic 3

  • Don’t nag, criticize, preach, or complain
  • Many say that nagging, begging, confiscating liquor, and sorrowfully reminding the person of the night before are to little or no avail.
  • One alcoholic attests, "The more I was urged to cut back or quit, the more I denied I had a problem. My advice is, ’Don’t push.’

Excessive Drinking Can Damage Brain Regions Used For Processing Facial Emotions

  • Heavy, constant drinking damages the brain in many different ways, including difficulties in perception of emotional expressions. Brain-imaging findings show that abstinent alcoholics have decreased activation in the amygdala and hippocampus regions of the brain when viewing faces with emotional expressions. Misreading facial cues can escalate conflict and difficulties, impaired social interaction and continued drinking.

Not all addicts incapacitated

  • In fact the greatest number of addicts in our society are "functional" addicts. They can regulate when they ingest their drugs of choice, which enables them …

Don Shenker: We need action to shield children from alcohol

  • Last month’s statistics from the NHS revealed the true extent of children’s drinking in England and a worrying pattern which has emerged over recent years. (The Yorkshire Post)

Scottish Rehab Treating Child Alcoholics as Young as 9 Years Old

  • Counsellor Francesca Martin, who works with children and families hit by long-term alcoholism, said a lot of kids have self-esteem issues and use drinking as …

Prescription "Sharing" Among Teens Widespread, Dangerous

  • A new study shows that one in five U.S. adolescents "lends" or "borrows" diverse prescriptions, with consequences that are sometimes dangerous or even deadly.

Effective Weed Control: A guide for people trying to cut down or stop using cannabis

  • This self-help guide is for people who are having problems with their cannabis use and want to do something about it [Turning Point, Australia]

Police get tough on ‘all you can drink’ promotions

  • Bars and clubs which offer ”all you can drink” promotions have been told they could face losing their licences by Devon and Cornwall police. (The Telegraph)
A Place Called Self: Women, Sobriety and Radical Transformation by Stephanie Brown
Gifts of Sobriety: When the Promises of Recovery Come True by Barbara S. Cole

Leaving an Abusive Relationship

For abused women, leaving is a complex and confusing process

Adult couple arguing and walking on street uid 1453650 I have seen and heard of this process in many of my clients (men and women) who were partners of alcoholics, addicts, compulsive gamblers or sex addicts.

Additionally, I have seen these stages of leaving in recovering people who have codependent partners who will not change their behaviours. In other words, the codependent behaviour is itself abusive.


Nothing could be easier than walking out the door, right? According to a new University of Illinois journal article, an abused woman actually goes through a five-step process of leaving that can be complicated at every stage by boundary ambiguity.

"When a woman is disengaging from a relationship, she is often unclear about her family’s boundaries. Is her partner in or out of her life? A woman’s spouse may be physically in the home but psychologically unavailable. He’s not caring for the kids or being a loving partner.

"Or she may have physically left him but still be psychologically connected. She misses him, and for the sake of her children, she’d like for her family to be together again," said Jennifer Hardesty.

"We could see this struggle clearly in the pictures women drew of their families at different points in the process of leaving. It’s a confusing time. The boundaries are ambiguous,"" she said.Group of teenagers watching movie in a dark theater uid 1176402

"It’s not unlike the experience of having a child leave for college," she noted. "Your child isn’t living at home, but you’re still very connected to them emotionally. Yet, when they come home for visits, they may pay little attention to you while they make the rounds of their friends. It’s always hard to figure out what the new boundaries are as you move into a new stage of life."

Khaw has applied the model to 25 abused women from varied backgrounds, identifying boundary ambiguity within the five stages of the process of leaving.

"In the first two stages, women begin to disconnect emotionally from their relationships. You hear them say things like, I started not to care for him anymore," Khaw said

Stage 3 is often marked by a pileup of abusive episodes and noticeable effects of the violence on their children. "Women make preparations to leave, such as finding a place to stay or secretly saving up money. This stage is important for women as they switch from thinking about leaving to actually doing something about it," she said.

"Then, at Stage 4, when women take action, we see a lot of what we call back and forthing because when women leave, the emotions often come back. They need clarity. They want to be physically and emotionally connected again," said Hardesty.

The last stage, maintenance, is achieved when women have been gone for six months or more. "But even then they may have boundary ambiguity if their ex-spouse won’t let them go. With continued contact through court-ordered child visitation, the potential for ongoing abuse remains as well as continued confusion over the abuser’s role in the woman’s life," she said.

In the past, Khaw and Hardesty have used the model to focus on what individual women are going through. But applying boundary ambiguity to the model gives a more complete picture of the process.

"Leaving a relationship is much more complex than just deciding to change, and it involves more than a woman’s prioritizing her safety. Other actors are involved. The abuser makes decisions that affect a woman’s movement through the stages. And children can be a powerful influence in motivating a woman to get out of a relationship and in pulling her back in," Hardesty said.

It’s important for social work professionals and frustrated family and friends to understand the process of leaving, Hardesty said.

"Often shelter workers focus on safety and tangible needs such as a job and housing. They don’t help women disentangle themselves emotionally. But it’s hard for women to get out of the situation if they haven’t resolved these relationship issues.

"Discouraged friends and family members have to learn to view leaving as a process and realize that there’s little they can say to speed it along. It’s important for them to reinforce the risks the woman is facing by asking such questions as ‘Has he become more abusive? Does he have a gun?’

"When talking to an abused friend or family member, one should always emphasize safety, but for your own sanity, you should realize that leaving is a process and she has to work her way through it herself," she said.

When women do finally achieve both physical and emotional separation, research shows that they experience fewer health problems and less depression, Hardesty said.

From a press release by; Lyndal Bee Lian Khaw, a University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign doctoral student, and Jennifer Hardesty are co-authors of the paper, which was published in the Journal of Family Theory & Review.

Family Female Alcoholism

Female Alcoholic has big impact on families Women’s Alcoholism Has Big Impact on Families

The topic of alcoholism and the damage it causes to families are most frequently looked at from the standpoint of the alcoholic male. Less in focus is the phenomenon of the alcoholic woman, even though the recorded cases are steadily growing in numbers.

The social stigma attached to drunkenness in women is much more severe than for men. The stigma encourages everybody to deny that something is wrong. Even husbands cover up the reality of their wives’ drinking, and the children, confused and anxious, learn not to believe their own perceptions. For the woman herself the social attitude is a strong incentive to hide reality from all, including herself.

The profile of the woman who abuses alcohol is surprisingly similar to that of the woman who marries an alcoholic. Both are likely to come from families disrupted by alcoholism or death and desertion. Both types have problems with poor self-esteem. While men in such circumstances tend to be angry and look for somebody on whom to take out their anger (a drinking wife conveniently serves that purpose), women typically turn their anger on themselves and blame themselves mercilessly for their own abuse. The self-disgust and attending hopelessness can easily serve as justification for alcohol abuse, regardless of the ensuing further self-blame.

Full story at the Daily Local

See also;

Child Abuse Causes Loss of Quality of Life

Abused angry boy with his fingers in his ears Child maltreatment victims lose two years of quality of life

Child maltreatment is associated with reductions in quality of life even decades later, according to a new University of Georgia study that finds that—on average—victims lose at least two years of quality of life.

Associate professor Phaedra Corso and her colleagues analyzed surveys of more than 6,000 people to assess the deficits in quality of life that victims suffer. Their results appear in the June issue of the American Journal of Public Health.

“We found that there are significant differences in health-related quality of life between people who were maltreated as children and those who were not,” Corso said, “and that holds across all age groups.”

Childhood maltreatment—which includes physical, sexual and emotional abuse and neglect—has been linked to an increased risk for ailments ranging from heart disease, obesity and diabetes to depression and anxiety. Corso said there are two reasons why.

First, childhood maltreatment increases the likelihood of unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, substance abuse and sexual promiscuity.

Secondly that repeated exposure to the stress caused by maltreatment alters brain circuits and hormonal systems, which puts victims at greater risk of chronic health problems.

The researchers found that 46 percent of people reported some form of maltreatment during childhood. Of those;

  • 26 percent reported physical abuse;
  • 21 percent reported sexual abuse;
  • 10 percent reported emotional abuse;
  • 14 percent reported emotional neglect; and
  • 9 percent reported physical neglect.

To assess reductions in quality of life, the team matched responses to a survey that assessed physical functioning, pain, cognitive functioning and social support with data from surveys that explicitly asked people how many years of life they would trade to be free of a given health condition. Throughout a lifetime, their responses translates to a loss of two years of quality-adjusted life expectancy.

“Every year gets diminished in some respect,” Corso said, “because the person who was maltreated has a lower quality of life than the person who wasn’t.”

“The long-term consequences of child maltreatment are very real and concerning. All children should have safe, stable and nurturing environments in which to grow and develop,” said Ileana Arias, director of CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. “For children and adults to live to their full potential, we must support programs that stop child maltreatment before it ever begins and work to help those who have already experienced it.”

The researchers caution that the two-year reduction in quality of life undoubtedly underestimates the true impact of childhood maltreatment.

Children experience severe reductions in quality of life as maltreatment is occurring, and surveys of adults don’t account for those reductions.

“A lot of the time people don’t consider violence as a public health issue,” Corso said, “but there’s a body of evidence that exists now that shows long-term health impacts of childhood maltreatment.”

Full story at; Child Maltreatment

See also;