In their book, “Rethinking Substance Abuse,” editors William R. Miller and Kathleen M. Carroll to sum up what has been learned about the science of addiction. These are;
- Drug Use is Chosen Behavior in the Beginning – for experimenting, peer pressure or otherwise its chosen at first.
- Drug Problems Emerge Gradually – it takes time to become addicted.
- Once Well Established, Drug Problems Tend to Become Self-Perpetuating – once the brain alters it number of drug receptor cells drug craving demands more of the same.
- Motivation is Central to Prevention and Intervention – actively doing something toward change may be more important than the particular actions that are taken.
- Drug Use Responds to Reinforcement. If you crave and use the drug use is reinforced.
- Drug Problems Do Not Occur in Isolation, but as Part of behavior clusters such as mood disorders, school or work problems, legal problems, ill-health and family problems.
- There Are Identifiable and Modifiable Risk and Protective Factors for Problem Drug Use – inherited and learned behaviour.
- Drug Problems Occur within a Family Context – either dysfunctional family culture, genetics or parental drug use.
- Drug Problems Are Affected by a Larger Social Context – social isolation is both a promoter and consequence; while bonding with someone else or a Higher Power may reverse the problem.
- Relationship Matters in rehabilitation. That’s why Alcoholics Anonymous relies on a spiritual connection with another person or a Higher Power.