Children of alcoholics: different brain regions effect who may or may not develop alcohol problems
- Although children of alcoholics (COA’s) have a greater risk of developing alcohol-use disorders, not all COA’s will develop alcohol-use disorders.
- A new study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activity of adolescent COA’s.
- Findings indicate that different brain regions may contribute to whether COA’s will be resilient or vulnerable to the development of Alcohol-use disorders.
This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain responses to emotional stimuli in adolescent COA’s considered “vulnerable” or “resilient” to Alcohol-use disorders.
Findings indicate that resilient COA’s have greater control over their emotional responses, while vulnerable COA’s seem to have difficulties processing emotional stimuli.
“COA’s are between 4 and 10 time more likely than non-COA’s to develop Alcohol-use disorders,”
… said Mary Heitzeg, research investigator in the psychiatry department at the University of Michigan. “It is widely believed that this is due to a combination of genes that are passed on and the environment these children are raised in. Both of these factors – genetics and environment – can influence the developing brain. Therefore, our research focuses on what brain responses can tell us about how risk is passed on to COA’s.”
Heitzeg and her colleagues recruited 28 adolescent participants, 16 to 20 years old, from a community study of alcoholic and matched similar families. Of these, 22 were COA’s: 11 were considered vulnerable for later alcoholism since they were already showing signs of problem drinking, and 11 were considered resilient, based on low levels of problem drinking during the course of their adolescence. The remaining six adolescents were considered low-risk. All of the participants were given a task of passively viewing positive, negative and neutral words during fMRI, and their neural activation was then compared. Behavior problems were also assessed.
“The really interesting part of our results is that we found separate brain regions that contribute to resilience versus vulnerability,” said Heitzeg, “as opposed to finding that the groups were simply performing at different levels along the same scale.
The resilient group had greater responses in two brain regions
- the orbitofrontal cortex, which monitors emotional stimuli and evaluates it so that the right response can be made to it; and
- the insula, which also has an emotional monitoring function but one that is directed more toward the internal emotional state. In contrast, the vulnerable group showed no difference from the other group in those two regions.”
“The authors speculate that this may indicate that resilient COA’s have enhanced awareness of their emotional responses, particularly effective emotional processing,” said Duncan Clark, associate professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. “This enhanced processing may lead to their being less likely to react to emotions in an impulsive fashion.”
“Conversely, the vulnerable group showed an increased response in an area of the prefrontal cortex believed to be involved in conscious regulation of emotional responses, and a corresponding decrease in the amygdala and ventral striatum, which are areas of the brain that are involved in unconscious emotion processing,” said Heitzeg.
“A pattern suggesting less activation in response to negative emotional stimuli,” said Clark, “means that vulnerable COA’s may have more difficulty with negative emotional stimuli due to less effective processing.”
“One of the hallmarks of alcoholism is a difficulty inhibiting automatic responses to alcohol-related stimuli,” explained Heitzeg. “For example, being in a bar may lead a recovering alcoholic to have a drink even though they know they should not drink because of the negative consequences. Some of this powerlessness in controlling automatic behavior may be caused by alcohol consumption, but some is believed to be a pre-existing behavioral trait that predisposes a person to alcoholism.
Therefore the enhanced monitoring and consequent flexibility in responding that may distinguish the resilient COA’s could translate specifically into a protective factor from alcoholism by allowing better control over behavior.”
On the other hand, she added, the suppression of emotion observed in the vulnerable COA’s suggests an excess tendency to shut down emotional arousal. “These youth may not fully process emotional information, leaving them unable to engage normally with emotional events in their lives,” Heitzeg explained. “Therefore, this group’s risk mechanism may involve a tendency toward inappropriate behavior because of a poorer processing of relevant emotional cues.”
Results of this research are published in the March issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research.